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COPPER ENGRAVINGS OF THE 'MASS PRODUCTION' ILLUSTRATING NETHERLANDISH PRAYER MANUSCRIPTS

Fritz Oskar Schuppisser


First published in: Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt (ed.): Masters and Miniatures. Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10-13 December 1989), Doornspijk/NL: Davaco Publishers, 1991, pg. 389-400. (ISBN 90-70288-74-5).

Summary

Copperplates of the 'mass production' (engraved in the Lower Rhinelands since the middle of the 15th cent.) were used to adorn manuscripts for religious communities. The engravers are named by modern sobriquets invented by Lehrs and Geisberg. Some of these MSS, mainly Books of Hours produced in the houses of the Devotio Moderna (possibly ordered 'pro pretio' from outside), are richly decorated (e.g. in the style of the Masters of Margriet Uutenham) and in leather bindings, the engravings pasted on the vellum and colored in the manner of handpainted miniatures. Other MSS are simpler (sometimes stitched) booklets with short Latin or vernacular prayers or 'rapiaria' for personal devotional use in the religious communities; the paper on which the engravings were printed was often used for the text as well. The manufacture of whole sets of paper quires containing a continuous series of engraved illustrations to be supplemented on the blank sides by handwritten prayers or quotations was widespread. The engravings soon travelled up the Rhine to monasteries in Swabia and Bavaria. Some printed books with woodcuts (or dotted prints) have illustrations similar to engraved sets of pictures.

This article expands on a theme touched on in my dissertation Passion Cycles in Early Copper Engraving north of the Alps before Dürer. A Contribution to the Illustration of Late Medieval Passion Literature (Bern 1988, to be printed in German), for which Prof. Ellen J. Beer was my supervisor.

1. Copper Engravings of the 'Mass Production'

In 1886 Max Lehrs attributed a group of anonymous engravings to the Master of St. Erasmus, named after an engraving1 showing the legendary martyrdom of this bishop by means of a capstan. St. Erasmus, one of the fourteen auxiliary saints, special patron of sailors and invoked against intestinal illnesses, was widely venerated in the Netherlands.

In 1909, Max Geisberg (in cooperation with Lehrs), reattributed the production of the Master of St. Erasmus (about 400 plates) to four different hands;2 he qualified this cluster of engravings as 'Fabrikware schlimmster Sorte (factory production of the worst kind)'3, having in common a craftmanship of production totally devoid of any artistic pretension. In his 'Kritischer Katalog', vol.3(1915), Lehrs accepted Geisberg's reattributions: The group of engravings formerly attributed to the single Master of St. Erasmus is now divided into four groups, namely the work of the Master with the Floral Frames4, the (reduced) Master of St. Erasmus5, the Master of the Dutuit Mount of Olives6 and the Master of the Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand7. In the following, the copperplates by these four engravers are called the 'mass production'.

Lehrs degrades the 'mass production', stressing mainly the superior quality of the plates by the Master of the Berlin Passion8. In Lehrs' view, the latter is the authoritative ancestor, while the engravers of the 'mass production' are only his followers, mainly occupied with copying and for the most part changing their model for the worse. A characteristic of the 'mass production' are the stereotypically engraved faces obviously incapable of any individual expression and always appearing somewhat bad-tempered because of the pulled-down corners of their mouths. According to Lehrs, the engraved figures are clumsily drawn in the manner of woodcuts, with quite mechanical hatchings and contours dominating. In the second half of the 15th century, engravings of the 'mass production' were often used as a substitute for painted miniatures in manuscripts; on the other hand, printed books were rarely illustrated with engravings, but mostly with woodcuts and sometimes with dotted prints.

Who were the engravers of this 'mass production'? Were they specialized lay brothers in religious communities where we often find illuminators and bookbinders familiar with the use of copper - or were they engravers working as goldsmiths in a guild, possibly in cooperation with the religious communities or with a publisher like Meckenem ?

2. Books of Hours with engravings

The finest example of the use of engravings in a Middle Dutch Book of Hours is undoubtedly the Huth Hours (London, British Library, MS Add. 38123) which already figures in the catalogue of Byvanck-Hoogewerff.9 The use of colors and of gold leaf for the backgrounds, the hand-painted frames and borders on every illustrated page show the illuminator's aim of transforming the engravings into miniatures. In the Huth Hours, the engravings are especially well combined with the corresponding text units: 8 engravings of the Life of the Virgin illustrate the Hours of the Virgin (FIG.1); the Holy Trinity, the Hours of Eternal Wisdom; 7 scenes of Christ's Passion, the Hours of the Holy Cross. An engraving of the Pentecost introduces the Hours of the Holy Spirit; the Last Judgement, the Seven Penitential Psalms; the Harrowing of Hell, the Office of the Dead. Pictures of St. Peter and St. Catherine illustrate prayers to these saints. 17 engravings pasted on the vellum of the MS and colored like miniatures are by the M. of the Berlin Passion10, another 4 are from the 'mass production'11. The Huth Hours were produced in ca. 1470 in Guelders in a convent of the Devotio Moderna. We find a similar border decoration (gold bars with flowers) in the Hours of Sophia van Bylant12 that was finished in 1475, probably at Arnhem. It contains painted miniatures by the Master of St. Bartholomew (also active as a panel painter in Cologne).

The name of the Master of the Berlin Passion was created by Lehrs after the engravings in the Middle Dutch Hours of Griet Vogels (Berlin-Dahlem, Kupferstichkabinett Cim.25), dated 1482;13 the MS contains 7 engravings of the Large Passion14 by this engraver. Again, the engravings are pasted on the vellum-pages of the MS, colored and mounted in a painted double-frame. There is no border decoration on the full-page illustrations, but the opposite pages containing important text openings15 are decorated with golden initials and ornamented borders in penwork with washed flowers and burnished gold. The 7 engravings of the Large Passion do not introduce the various hours of the Office of the Cross, but are dispersed over the entire text of the book. The Office of the Virgin does not figure in this MS, that has been much used and originates from a House of the Sisters of the Common Life in or around Arnhem.

The Hours of Johanna van Bocholt (Berlin-West, Staatsbibliothek MS germ. oct. 87)16 was written about 1460/70, also in the Rhenish Lowlands. It contains Middle Dutch texts, some of them in the version of Geert Grote. The calendar contains saints from several bishoprics, mainly Cologne and Liège, and an added family chronicle with further specifications17 points to Nijmegen or the Limburg. Six openings show a full-page illustration on the left facing important text entries on the right. These illustrations are either colored engravings18 or miniatures with paper-cut pieces19 of engravings. On the Crucifixion (FIG.2), the cross with Christ has been cut out from an engraving and its trunk has been elongated by cutting it into two pieces and adding a supplementary painted middle section allowing the paper-cut corpus of Christ to be placed above a large chessboard gold leaf. The Burial20 is extremely rare in engravings, but similar painted miniatures21 are quite popular as an opening of the Office of the Dead. In the Last Judgement22 the two intercessors (the Virgin and St. John Baptist) are absent - on most other engravings they form an integral part of this scene; the face of Christ inclining to the dead rising from their tombs and not portrayed in the usual hieratic frontality is noteworthy, as is the row of the aligned stone coffins parallel to the ground line. The Mass of St. Gregory is similar (but in reverse) in the Hours of Margriet Uutenham (USA, Private Coll.).23

The decoration of a Flemish Prayer Book from Tongeren (Paris, Bibl. Nat., Cabinet des Estampes Rés. Ea6), datable to as early as 1463, is less precious.24 This is one of the earliest MSS with engravings from the 'mass production' still extant. It contains - apart from several vernacular Offices (not in Grote's adaption) - a whole series of monastic prayers comparable to those gathered and analyzed by Maria Meertens in her monography.25 16 engravings26 and 11 dotted prints (sometimes only single figures cut out of these prints)27 are pasted on the vellum of the MS and combined with corresponding texts. The illustrations are colored and surrounded on each side by borders of washed pen-flourishes (rosettes) and additional filigree-patterns.28

Some of the dotted prints have the same motifs as the Small Passion by the M. of the Berlin Passion.29 Cologne was a center of production of these dotted prints.30 The scenes were copied again and again and were used as models for illustrations in printed Prayer Books, e.g. the Horologium Devotionis31 by Frater Bertholdus. In my opinion, there is no necessity to assume (as Lehrs does) that the M. of the Berlin Passion was always the inventor of these popular pictures. We may suppose that the engraver himself copied from model sheets; unfortunately, a more detailed modern analysis of the origins of this widely disseminated cycle has not yet been done.

A Middle Dutch Book of Hours (Vienna, OeNB, Ser. nov. 12715)32 was written in a cloister of the Windesheim Congregation and contains numerous notes on indulgences and promises of the effects of the prayers. E.g., we read on f.2v as an introduction to the first prayer:'Soe wat mensche, die dit ouer hem draghet, die enmach niet steruen onghebiecht...(Whoever wears this prayer with him shall not die suddenly, without having confessed before)'; another rubric (f.222) promises '...alsoe vele aflaets als dropelen waters vallen mochten op eenen dach'. The MS (not known to Lehrs) contains 3 miniatures and 17 engravings (several from the 'mass production').33 The engravings are pasted on the vellum and also 'sewn' onto it in a zigzag pattern of alternating red and green thread (FIG.3). This thread pattern appears simultaneously on the recto and verso of the same folio of parchment and recalls the sewn-in pilgrim's badges and coins34 in many extant Books of Hours. The original binding with blind stamps of a griffin may allow a more specific localization within the diocese of Utrecht.35

So far we have been treating Books of Hours and Prayer Books illustrated with copperplates of the 'mass production' and mainly produced in the monasteries and convents of the Devotio Moderna. The most precious of these MSS try to imitate comparable books with painted miniatures by coloring the prints like miniatures and applying gold leaf, and by carefully decorating the borders of the illustrated pages and of the facing text pages. The pages with important text openings often have richly illuminated initials.

The two most lavishly decorated MSS have a characteristic border decoration: A gold bar with various flowers, berries (and also some animals) 'sitting' on this bar. In the Huth Hours, the pages with important text openings (FIG.1) have such bars on the bottom and outer borders, with flowers and berries entwined with tendrils in penwork and numerous spores and tiny leaves of burnished gold; the engravings on the facing pages have a simpler symmetric decoration in penwork with golden dots, pinnate lancet leaves and trefoils.36 However, in the Hours of Johanna van Bocholt (FIG.2) the gold bars sometimes also appear on the borders of the full-page illustrations;37 moreover, a pinnate golden tendril winds around the flowers, birds and dragons (with or without a gold bar). We also find this golden tendril on the borders of the Hours of Margriet Uutenham.38 Acanthus leaves, however, are mostly absent from these margins decorated by the 'Masters of Margriet Uutenham', working in Gelderland and Limburg. We find similar border decoration on some text pages of the Hours of Sophia van Bylant39 and in several other MSS already mentioned by Wegener40. On the important text pages41 of the Hours of Griet Vogels there are beautiful initials and border decoration in penwork, but no gold bars.

Unfortunately, I do not know the present owner and location of an important MS: This Prayer Book of Sister Anna, Wartys Dochter van Utrecht (formerly F.C. Wieder Coll., Noordwijk), early 16th cent., seems to be extant as a whole; its rich illustration (among others 10 engravings of the 'mass production') was described by Lehrs, but not its text form and decoration.42 I would be pleased to receive any information about the present owner of this MS, as a more exact analysis is desirable.

During the Congress in Utrecht, Prof. J.P. Gumbert had the kindness to indicate to me two other Dutch Books of Hours illustrated with prints, viz. London, British Library, MS Add. 17524 and MS Add. 18214 (calendar pointing to Enkhuizen); I have not yet been able to inspect these MSS.

I also mention a Middle Dutch Book of Hours (London, BL, MS Harley 1662); it does not contain any engravings but its miniatures and borders are obviously related to similar engravings, mainly the M. of the Berlin Passion. Extensively describing this MS, James Marrow suggests that its illuminator was also trained as an engraver in the circle of the M. of the Berlin Passion.43 Since various MSS with engravings by the M. of the Berlin Passion are from the Lower Rhine, we may claim that this engraver was active in the Rhenish Lowlands (Guelders, Limburg, North-West Germany). Geisberg's theory that this engraver is identical with Israhel van Meckenem's father and should therefore be called the 'elder' Meckenem has not met with unanimous acceptance.44

3. Simpler Prayer Books with Engravings

We now turn to further MSS illustrated with engravings but containing only modest decoration. Figuratively speaking, we are now climbing down from the middle of the pyramid to its base, with regard to the luxury of decoration. These are mainly MSS written on paper (not vellum) and often only stitched booklets. Some MSS are extant only in fragments; mostly because art dealers preferred to cut the MS apart in order to sell the single detached leaves with illustrations, without due care for the preservation of the MS as an entity. Some engravers seem to have been specialized in the production of quires of paper bi-folios which were printed on one side only with a continuous set of engraved scenes, while the other side remained blank and was to contain the corresponding handwritten prayer text; obviously the cheapest way of manufacturing an ideal (but rarely realized) prayer booklet where every full-page illustration is faced by a corresponding short prayer text on the opposite page of the same opening.

One cut paper-MS45 (24 detached folios, now in Paris46, Nuremberg47, Darmstadt48 and Dresden49) (FIG.4) illustrated with engravings and containing Latin quotations on the passion is certainly a rapiarium50 , one of those florilegia gathered by the monks of the Windesheim Congregation by copying the most popular passages from the Church Fathers (with preference to St. Augustine) and Doctors (e.g. St. Bernard of Clairvaux) for personal devotional use.51 When his friends had been keeping him away from his studies for too long, Grote used to say:'Ik moet gaan, want Augustinus, Gregorius, Hieronymus en andere kerkvaders wachten op mij'.52 Similar collections of quotations for personal devotion are also known from Bavarian monasteries.53 These rapiaria may have contained illustrations as an aid to stimulate devotional practice;54 for prayer and meditation, religious people in communities made use of simpler but suggestive compositions, while the more sophisticated miniatures55 inspired by contemporary panel painting were especially appreciated by the richer prelates of their time.

The illustrations in our rapiarium are by various engravers; apart from the 'mass production'56 the detached folios of the MS also contain 8 plates of the passion cycle by the Master of the Gardens of Love (the only impressions to have survived)57 and some plates of the Smallest Passion58 by Israhel van Meckenem. Five bi-folios in Paris prove that the engravings by the M. of the Garden of Love as well as several others from the 'mass production' must have been printed in the same workshop from the copperplates directly onto the paper sheets of this MS; the border of the plates is still recognizable on the folios. On the other hand, the engravings by Israhel van Meckenem are pasted on the paper sheets. Our rapiarium may come from an Augustinian monastery; a terminus post quem is afforded by the date of production of Meckenem's Smallest Passion59, 1475-78.

The relationship between the passion cycle by the M. of the Gardens of Love and the grisailles60 (in silverpoint/gouache technique) in a number of Dutch Books of Hours has been widely discussed. Probably, the engravings are copied from model sheets used also by the designers of some of the grisailles. The exact place of origin of the grisailles is not known;61 to find out the various roots of these partly elegant compositions would be an inviting task. Apart from the passion engravings by the M. of the Gardens of Love which are very similar to some grisailles and could have been produced as early as the forties, there are also some engravings of the 'mass production' showing the influence of the grisailles, e.g. the Deposition (FIG.5)62 with its peculiar corpus of Christ hanging fluidly.

A stitched Prayer Booklet in Latin (Berlin-Dahlem, Kupferstichkabinett Cim.30) was acquired in 1908 from Ludwig Rosenthal in Munich.63 It contains engravings of a passion cycle printed directly on the paper of the MS and attributed by Lehrs to Israhel van Meckenem as his Earliest Passion64. While the illustrations of the booklet are arranged in the correct order, the textpages are badly coordinated; small signs (e.g. a globe with cross) in the manner of catchwords have been inserted to help the reader follow the original pagination. This disorder mainly stems from the insertion of a longer passage about the Seven Words on the Cross.

An extensive Life of Christ engraved by the M. of the Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand 65 also belongs to our 'mass production'; this set has been copied and artistically improved by Israhel van Meckenem in his Smallest Passion66. Various scenes of this set show the same motifs as the Netherlandish blockbook edition of the Biblia Pauperum67; we also find some German incunabula68 with woodcut illustrations copied from this set. In Holland, the Second Gouda Woodcutter used the set as a model for his woodcuts appearing in several prints from 1482;69 similar scenes were also designed by the Haarlem Woodcutter70.

Lehrs knew the Life of Christ by the M. of the M. of the Ten Thousand from the so-called Ghent-Breviary, a paper-MS formerly owned by the Ghent collector Jean-Baptist Delbecq.71 Most detached folios of this MS are now in the Print Room of the BM in London;72 the MS comes from the Abbey of St. Peter in Ghent.

The engravings of this Life of Christ mostly have a chalcographic frame, with a cord pattern, and also an engraved Latin legend below the scene (FIG.5); these characteristics begin with the Annunciation (not in Lehrs). Some other plates with subjects from Genesis and the Life of the Virgin are catalogued by Lehrs as belonging to the same set;73 various scenes from Genesis, amongst them the Creation of Eve74, have a gothic architectural frame. A similar engraving is pasted (as the only engraved illustration) onto the right border of a corresponding text page in a Netherlandish Bible from the Nunnery St. Katharinendael in Hasselt/Belgium (London, BL, MS Add. 15310, f.9), written not later than 1462.75

Two more MSS (unknown to Lehrs) are illustrated with the same Life of Christ. A small Prayer Booklet from Diest (Brussels, Bibl. Roy., Cabinet des estampes Ms. S.II.86.244/86.256) contains various Latin and French texts.76 Its 13 engravings illustrate a Latin weekly office and are printed directly on the paper pages of the MS.77 This booklet was used by pious sisters (possibly Tertiaries) who ask the readers to pray for their beloved deceased fellow-sisters.78

We find the same Life of Christ in a Prayer Book from the Rookloster near Brussels (Vienna, OeNB, Ser. nov. 12909).79 The booklet is datable after 1486 (from the watermarks) and contains a series of Flemish devotional prayers to be found in a similar form in several other Prayer Books. Philip E. Webber has analyzed the linguistic form of these short prayers.80 Since all of the 50 engravings in this booklet are uncolored and preserved in excellent proofs, they are well suited for an exact description of the various states of the plate, a laborious task meticulously done by Heribert Hutter in Vienna. Hutter also discovered involuntary impressions (of the preceding resp. following engraving) on each blank reverse of the illustrated folios; the bi-folios with the engravings must have been piled up in quires while the printing ink was still wet.81 - As we find the Life of Christ in three MSS from the Southern Netherlands (Ghent, Diest, Brussels), we may also localize the M. of the M. of the Ten Thousand in this region.

In Darmstadt, 36 detached leaves of a MS with Latin prayers of the Articulus-Source by Jordanus of Quedlinburg82, a favourite author of the Devotio Moderna, are preserved; the engravings of the 'mass production' are pasted on the vellum and colored (FIG.6).

4. Engravings travelling up the Rhine

We soon find engravings of the 'mass production' disseminated in religious MSS in Swabia and Bavaria mainly in the monasteries where the reform stipulated by the Council of Constance was carried out. Some engravings may have travelled up the Rhine (as I did returning home from the Utrecht Congress) to be stored and used in the communities, others may have been copied elsewhere from their Lower Rhenish models.

30 engravings by the M. with the Floral Frames have been detached from a tiny Prayer Book (Nuremberg, Germ. Nationalmuseum, Bibl. Hs. 1734)83 together with other prints and have been given to the Print Room for conservation. Some detached engravings (with typical chalcographic floral frames) are copied from models similar to the Dutch grisailles (Agony in the Garden; Deposition)84.

Some MSS in Munich have engravings of our 'mass production'. A Psalter in Latin and German (Bayer. Staatsbibl., Clm. 20110) from the monastery of Tegernsee , about 1480, with hymns in Latin and German contains several dotted prints and engravings pasted on the vellum and colored.85 In a Latin Breviary (Clm. 14861) from the monastery of St. Emmeram in Regensburg there is an engraving of the Lamentation by the M. of the D. Mt. of Olives (not in Lehrs) with the handwritten text of the Salve Regina in brown ink.86

FIGURES

FIG. 1: Huth Hours, London, BL, MS Add. 38123, f.17v/18 (Beginning Hours of the Virgin). Presentation of the Virgin Mary in the Temple (M. of the Berlin Passion, Lehrs 3, 70x46mm).
Copyright: London, British Library.

FIG. 2: Hours of Johanna van Bocholt, Berlin-West, Staatsbibl. MS germ. oct. 87, f.59v/60 (Beginning Hours of the Cross, page 145x110mm). Crucifixion (M. of the Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand, Lehrs 42).
Copyright: Bildarchiv Foto Marburg.

FIG. 3: Book of Hours, Vienna, OeNB, Ser. nov. 12715, f.99v. Harrowing of Hell (M. of the Dutuit Mt. of Olives, not in Lehrs, 72x53mm borderline), with indulgence.
Copyright: Vienna, Bildarchiv Oesterr. Nationalbibl.

FIG. 4: 'Rapiarium' with Quotations from Church Fathers. Detached fol. (133x89mm), Mass of St. Gregory (Master with the Floral Frames, Lehrs 105). Darmstadt, Hessisches Landesmuseum.
Copyright: Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt.

FIG. 5: Flemish Prayer Book. Detached fol. (139x96mm), Deposition (M. of the M. of the Ten Thousand, Lehrs 43). London, BM Print Room.
Copyright: British Museum.

FIG. 6: Latin Prayer Book. Detached fol., Ecce Homo (Master of St. Erasmus, Lehrs 39, 60x40mm Pl.). Darmstadt, Hessisches Landesmuseum.
Copyright: Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt.


NOTES

1) A. Hyatt Mayor, Late Gothic Engravings of Germany & the Netherlands. 682 Copperplates from the 'Kritischer Katalog' by Max Lehrs (New York 1969), fig.293.

2 ) Max Geisberg, Die Anfänge des deutschen Kupferstiches und der Meister E.S., 1st ed. (Leipzig 1909), p.119.

3 ) Max Lehrs, Geschichte und kritischer Katalog des deutschen, niederländischen und französischen Kupferstichs im XV. Jahrhundert, 9 vols. text & 9 vols. plates (Vienna 1908-34), vol.3, p.140.

4 ) Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), pp.140-6.

5 ) Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), pp.233-6. - Max Geisberg, Kupferstiche der Frühzeit (Strassburg 1923) [=Studien zur dt. Kunstgeschichte, 223], p.56, finally pleads for a total elimination of the nickname 'M. of St. Erasmus', attributing all his plates to other engravers.

6 ) Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), pp.282-7.

7 ) Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), pp.349-54.

8 ) Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), pp.1-19; cf. Max Geisberg, Der Meister der Berliner Passion und Israhel van Meckenem (Strassburg 1903) [=Studien zur dt. Kunstgeschichte, 42]; repro. in F.W.H. Hollstein, Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts. ca. 1450-1700 (Amsterdam 1949ff.), vol.12, pp.73-113.

9 ) Catalogue of the Fifty Manuscripts & Printed Books Bequeathed to the British Museum by Alfred H. Huth (London 1912), pp.13-14 & pl.10a-d; Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts in the British Museum in the years 1911-1914 (London 1925), p.23; A.W. Byvanck and G.J. Hoogewerff, La Miniature Hollandaise [...], 3 vols. (The Hague 1922-6), No.120 & pl.190.

10 ) Lehrs No.3 (f.17v), L.7 (f.27v), L.8 (f.37v), L.9 (f.42v), L.10 (f.46v), L.11 (f.50v), L.12 (f.54v), L.13 (f.61v), L.77 (f.67v), L.17 (f.103v), L.18 (f.107v), L.20 (f.114v), L.32 (f.119v), L.25 (f.127v), L.58 (f.180v), L.72 (f.181v), L.33 (f.183v).

11 ) M. with the Floral Frames Lehrs No.67 (f.94v), L.24 (f.110v), L.72 (f.123v); M. of the Dutuit Mount of Olives L.39 (f.154v).

12 ) Paul Pieper,'Das Stundenbuch des Bartholomäus-Meisters', in: Wallraf-Richartz-Jb. 21(1959),97-158, figs. 41 & 44.

13 ) Gerard Achten, Das christliche Gebetbuch im Mittelalter. Andachts- und Stundenbücher in Handschrift und Frühdruck, 2nd ed. (Berlin 1987), No.70 [=repro. f.51v]; Geisberg, op. cit. (n.8), pp.18-20; Lehrs, op. cit. (n.3), pp.11 & 84-5.

14 ) Lehrs Nos.26-9 & 32-4.

15 ) Friedrich Lippmann, Der Kupferstich, 7th ed., rev. and enl. by Fedja Anzelewsky (Berlin 1963), fig.2[=f.37v/38].

16 ) Hans Wegener, 'Das Gebetbuch der Johanna von Bocholt', in: Westfälische Studien (Leipzig 1928) [=Alois Bömer zum 60. Geburtstag gewidmet], pp.228-32 & pl.7; idem, Beschreibendes Verzeichnis der Miniaturen und des Initialschmuckes in den deutschen Handschriften bis 1500 (Leipzig 1928) [=Beschreibende Verzeichnisse der Miniaturen-Handschriften der Preussischen Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, 5], pp.145-6 & fig. 135 [=f.90v, Last Judgement]; Achten op. cit. (n.13), fig.71 [=f.180v, Burial].

17 ) Wegener Gebetbuch art. cit. (n.16), p.232.

18 ) Last Judgement (f.90v), not in Lehrs; Mass of St. Gregory (f.108v), similar to Israhel van Meckenem, Lehrs No.365; Burial (f.180v), not in Lehrs.

19 ) Madonna on the Crescent Moon (f.14v), similar to M. of the M. of the Ten Thousand Lehrs No.61; Crucifixion with three figures (f.59v) by the same, L.42; Madonna (f.139v), not in Lehrs. Cf. Wegener Gebetbuch art. cit. (n.16),pp.229-30.

20 ) Wegener Gebetbuch art. cit. (n.16), pl.7; Achten op. cit. (n.13), fig.p.105.

21 ) Joachim M. Plotzek, Andachtsbücher des Mittelalters aus Privatbesitz. Katalog zur Ausstellung im Schnütgen-Museum (Cologne 1987), pp.39-48.

22 ) Wegener Verzeichnis op. cit. (n.16), fig.135.

23 ) Henri L.M. Defoer et al., The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting. Exh. cat. Rijksmuseum Het Catharijneconvent, Utrecht. The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York (Stuttgart 1989), No.89.

24 ) Henri Bouchot, Les deux cents Incunables xylographiques du Département des Estampes, 2 vols. (Paris 1903), vol.1,p.190; Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), vol.3, p.8; Geisberg op. cit. (n.8), p.15; Max Geisberg, Verzeichnis der Kupferstiche Israhels van Meckenem (Strassburg 1905) [=Studien zur dt. Kunstgeschichte, 58], p.294.

25 ) Maria Meertens, De Godsvrucht in de Nederlanden naar Handschriften van Gebedenboeken der XVe eeuw, 4 vols. ([Brussels] 1930-4)[=Leuvense Studiën en Tekstuitgaven]. - A more precise study of the rich text material of this MS is desirable.

26 ) Reproduced in Michèle Hébert, Inventaire des gravures des Ecoles du Nord. 1440-1550. Bibliothèque Nationale, Département des Estampes, 2 vols. (Paris 1982), vol.1. - M. of the Berlin Passion Lehrs No.35/II(f.218v), L.70(f.268v), L.74(f.325v); M. of St. Erasmus L.14(f.87v); M. of the Dutuit Mt. of Olives L.81(f.65v), L.72/II(f.77v), L.87(f.191v), L.70/II(f.235v); M. of the M. of the Ten Thousand L.76(f.167v), L.54(f.176v), L.7(f.209v), L.80(f.302v), L.6(f.319v), L.3(f.334v); two more small engravings with Saints f.223('Master S').

27 ) Cf. Hébert op. cit. (n.26), No.151.

28 ) A.J.J. Delen, Histoire de la Gravure dans les Anciens Pays-Bas et dans les Provinces Belges. Des Origines jusqu'à la Fin du XVIIIe siècle. Première Partie. Des Origines à 1500 (Paris 1924), pl.XI/1 & LI/2-3.

29 ) Cf. M. of the Berlin Passion Lehrs Nos.14-25; Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), pp.48ff.(Nos.23d, 24b, 25d = 3 dotted prints copied from engravings) and pp.63-76(Nos.1a, 4d, 6c, 8g, 11f, 13h, 43f = 7 dotted prints copied from hypothetic copper models). 1 dotted print copied from the M. with the Floral Frames (L.71d).

30 ) 10 dotted prints in Paris, MS Rés. Ea6 make part of a set, cf. Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), p.31, series <g>, and are attributed to a metalcutter (Meister der Kirchenväterbordüre) active in Cologne; cf. Richard S. Field, Fifteenth Century Woodcuts and Metalcuts from the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. (Washington D.C. [1965]), No.296; Herbst des Mittelalters. Spätgotik in Köln und am Mittelrhein. Cat. Exh. Kunsthalle Köln, 20.6.-27.9.1970 (Cologne 1970), pp.129-31.

31 ) Incunabula (A) Bertholdus, Horalogium Devotionis [Cologne, Ulrich Zell, about 1488]= GW 4172, with 13 dotted prints from our set, cf. Albert Schramm, Der Bilderschmuck der Frühdrucke, 23 vols. (Leipzig 1922-43), vol.8, figs.41-6, 50-1, 67-71; Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), p.32, series <k/I>. - (B) Bertholdus, Horologium Devotionis. Cologne, Johann Landen [about 1498]= GW 4176, with 12 dotted prints from our set, cf. Schramm, vol.8, figs.877 & 886-96; Lehrs vol.3,p.32, series <k/II>. - (C) Bertholdus, Horologium Devotionis [Basle, Johann Amerbach, not after 1490], cf. GW 4175, with 23 woodcuts from our set, cf. Schramm vol.21, figs.679, 685, 688-9, 691-3, 695-6, 699-709; Lehrs vol.3, p.30, series <d>.

32 ) Otto Pächt and Ulrike Jenni, Holländische Schule, 2 vols. (Vienna 1975) [=Oesterr. Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Klasse, Denkschriften, 124 = Veröffentlichungen d. Kommission für Schrift- u. Buchwesen d. Mittelalters, 1/3], vol.1, pp.89-92; H. Menhardt, Verzeichnis der altdeutschen literarischen Handschriften der Oesterreichischen Nationalbibliothek, vol.3 (Berlin 1961), pp. 1522-3.

33 ) Pächt-Jenni op. cit. (n.32), vol.2, figs.263, 264, 267.

34 ) Plotzek op. cit. (n.21), p.54.

35 ) Pächt-Jenni op. cit. (n.32), vol.2, fig.274. - The bindings of the 'monasterium Canonicorum Regularium in Trajecto'(ibid. vol.1, p.90) are different; cf. K. van der Horst et al., Handschriften en Oude Drukken van de Utrechtse Universiteitsbibliotheek, 2nd ed. (Utrecht 1984), figs.24 & 26.

36 ) Byvanck-Hoogewerff op. cit. (n.9), pl.190A; Cat. Huth op. cit. (n.9), pl. 10d.

37 ) Wegener Gebetbuch art. cit. (n.16), pl.7; Wegener Verzeichnis op. cit. (n.16) fig.135; Achten op. cit. (n.13), fig.71.

38 ) Defoer op. cit. (n.23), pl. X/89. - A similar miniature with the Sacred Heart and goldbar borders also in the Middle Dutch Hours (Utrecht, Rijksuniversiteit, MS 6.H.31) f.18v, cf. J.H.A. Engelbregt, 'Een Getijdenboek in de Universiteitsbibliotheek te Utrecht', in: Simiolus 1(1966),65-68, p.66,fig.2; van der Horst op. cit. (n.35), No.122.

39 ) Cf. n.12.

40 ) Berlin, Staatsbibl. MS theol. lat. fol. 46b (Homiliary from Gaesdonck near Goch); Munich, Bayer. Staatsbibl., Cgm. 115, cf. Defoer op. cit. (n.23), No.89; Prayerbook, formerly Duke of Arenberg Coll., cf. Wegener Gebetbuch art. cit. (n.16), p.231.

41 ) Fols. 15, 38, 52, 75, 95.

42 ) C.G. Boerner, Leipzig. Versteigerungskatalog 153. Sammlung kostbarer alter Kupferstiche, Holzschnitte und Radierungen aus altem Adelsbesitz. 3./4. May 1927, No.43,pp.8-15; William H. Schab Gallery, New York, Cat. 40(1966), Prints & Drawings, No.64, p.71.

43 ) James Marrow, 'A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Notes on the Relationship between Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands', in: Art Bulletin 60(1978), pp.590-616.

44 ) Marrow art. cit. (n.43), p.613,n.74; Jutta Schnack, Der Passionszyklus in der Graphik Israhel van Meckenems und Martin Schongauers (Münster/Westphalia 1979) [=Bocholter Quellen und Beiträge, 2], p.5; archival material discussed in Jutta Schnack, 'Art. Meckenem', in: Neue Deutsche Biographie[...], vol.16 (Berlin 1990, in print).

45 ) Max Lehrs, Der Meister der Liebesgärten. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des ältesten Kupferstichs in den Niederlanden (Dresden 1893),p.17, Nos.4-11 & p.19, Nos.1-18; Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), vol.1, p.318 & vol.3, p.203.

46 ) BN, Cabinet des Estampes, Rés. Ea20a (5 bi-folios and 2 fols., given to the Print Room in 1818 by Van Praet). - François Courboin, Catalogue Sommaire des Gravures et Lithographies composant la Réserve. Bibliothèque Nationale, Département des Estampes, 2 vols. (Paris 1900-1), Nos. 217.1-12; Hébert op. cit. (n.26), Nos.162-6, 171-2, 522A, 734-7; Lehrs op. cit. (n.45), fig.4(bi-folio with Agony in the Garden and texts); Marrow art. cit. (n.43), fig.48.

47 ) Germ. Nat. Museum, Kupferstichkabinett Inv. K. 12112-12115 (4 fols., formerly v. Quandt Coll. and Weigeliana). - T.O. Weigel and Ad. Zestermann, Die Anfänge der Druckerkunst in Bild und Schrift, 2 vols. (Leipzig 1866), vol.2, No.409.

48 ) Hessisches Landesmuseum, Graph. Sammlung (8 fols.), cf. FIG.4.

49 ) Staatl. Kunstsammlungen, Kupferstichkabinett (2 fols.).

50 ) Du Cange, Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, 7 vols. (Paris 1840-50), vol.5, p.587.

51 ) Georgette Epiney-Burgard, Gérard Grote (1340-1384) et les débuts de la Dévotion moderne (Wiesbaden 1970) [=Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für europäische Geschichte, Mainz, 54],p. 166, n.54. - Zwolle, Coll. Emmanuelshuizen MS emm 13 is a handwritten rapiarium, cf. Jos.M.M. Hermans and Aafje Lem, Middeleeuwse Handschriften en Oude Drukken in de Collectie Emmanuelshuizen te Zwolle (Zwolle 1989), No.13. - A rapiarium printed (against the will of its author) is Johannes Mauburnus, Rosetum exercitiorum spiritualium et sacrarum meditationum [Zwolle, Peter van Os] 1494 (=Hain-Copinger 13995), cf. Le Cinquième Centenaire de l'Imprimerie dans les Anciens Pays-Bas. Catalogue. Exposition à la Bibl. Roy. Albert Ier, ll.9.-27.10. 1973 (Brussels 1973), No.152.

52 ) Geert Grote en de Moderne Devotie. Deventer, Athenaeumsbibliotheek (17.8.-17.10. 1984) and Utrecht, Rijksmus. Het Catharijneconvent (14.4.-24.6.1984) (Utrecht 1984), p.48.

53 ) Johannes von Indersdorf, Utilitates memorie dominice passionis (XV Nutzen vom Leiden Christi). - Cf. Bernhard Haage, Der Traktat 'Von dreierlei Wesen der Menschen' (Heidelberg 1968, phil. diss.), pp. 34-42.

54 ) In Dresden, Kupferstichkabinett Hs. A71a,1 (from an Augustinian monastery), an Office of the Passion in Latin is annotated with quotations from the Church Fathers in Latin and illustrated with engravings (among others M. of the Gardens of Love Lehrs No.14, and M. with the Floral Frames L.4). - Cf. Weigel-Zestermann op. cit. (n.47), vol.2, p.347, No.419; Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), vol.1, p. 85.

55 ) E.g. Master of Evert Zoudenbalch and M. of Gijsbrecht van Brederode, cf. Defoer op. cit. (n.23), Nos.62 & 65.

56 ) M. with the Floral Frames Lehrs Nos.68-9, 73-7, 105; M. of St. Erasmus L.50; M. of the M. of the Ten Thousand L.53b, 64; also M. with the Banderoles L.72.

57 ) Lehrs Nos.6-13; also the Saints L.15 and L.18. - Cf. Lehrs op. cit. (n.45), figs.4-11; Max Geisberg, Die Anfänge des Kupferstichs, 2nd ed. (Leipzig 1923) [=Meister d. Graphik, hg. v. Hermann Voss, 2], pl.60; Hollstein Dutch op. cit. (n.8), vol.12, figs.pp.174-5.

58 ) Lehrs Nos.99, 100, 105, 135. - F.W.H. Hollstein, German Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts, ca. 1400-1700 (Amsterdam 1954ff.), vol.24 and 24A(reproductions), ed. Fritz Koreny, containing Meckenem's complete work.

59 ) Lehrs Nos.62-120. - Max Geisberg, Geschichte der deutschen Graphik vor Dürer (Berlin 1939), p. 67.

60 ) Lehrs op. cit. (n.45), figs.5a-12a; Byvanck-Hoogewerff op. cit. (n.9), Nos.44-53; L.M.J. Delaissé, A Century of Dutch Manuscript Illumination (Berkeley/Los Angeles 1968), pp.30-32 & figs.49-53; Gloria Konig Fiero, Devotional Illumination in Early Netherlandish Manuscripts: A Study of the Grisaille Miniatures in thirteen related fifteenth century Dutch Books of Hours (Talahassee/Florida 1970, thesis) [=Univ. Microfilms Int., Ann Abor, 8007354], pp.289-312(=Cat. of 13 Grisaille-MSS); M. Osterstrom-Renger, 'The Netherlandish Grisaille Miniatures: Some Unexplored Aspects', in: Wallraf-Richartz-Jb. 44(1983), pp.145-173; Defoer op. cit. (n.23), Nos.51-54; Marrow art. cit. (n.43),p.609.

61 ) Defoer op. cit. (n.23),p.186.

62 ) Similar to M. of the Gardens of Love, L.12, reproduced in Hébert op. cit. (n.26), No.736; Hollstein Dutch op. cit. (n.8), fig.p.175. - Cf. also M. with the Floral Frames, L.58 = Mayor op. cit. (n.1), fig.287.

63 ) Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), vol.9,p.149; Geisberg op. cit. (n.8),p.79; Geisberg op. cit. (n.24),p.5.

64 ) Lehrs Nos.127-139. - The attribution to Meckenem disapproved by Springer, 'Eine Handschrift mit deutschen Kupferstichen des XV. Jahrhunderts', in: Amtl. Berichte aus den königl. Kunstsammlungen Berlin 30(1908), cols.80-82. - The modern leather binding with 'Israhel van Meckenem' stamped in golden letters on the front cover obviously reaffirming the attribution.

65 ) Lehrs Nos. 8-53.

66 ) Cf. n.59.

67 ) Heinrich Theodor Musper, Die Urausgabe der holländischen Apokalypse und Biblia pauperum, 3 vols. (Munich 1961). - The 40-page edition probably printed in the Northern Netherlands in the early sixties.

68 ) (A) Hain 14936 = Schramm op. cit. (n.31), vol.21, figs.18-272; (B) Hain 14935 = Schramm vol.16, figs.299-552; (C) Hain 14941 = Schramm vol.10, figs.321-460; (D) Copinger 3349 = Schramm vol.10, figs. 97-240; (E) Hain 4061 = Schramm vol.10, figs.241-299; (F) Hain 4996 = Schramm vol.10, fig.89. - Cf. Geisberg op. cit. (n.24),pp. 279-92; Avril Henry,'The Woodcuts of <Der Spiegel menschlicher Behältnis> in the Editions Printed by Drach and Richel', in: Oud Holland 99(1985),pp. 1-15.

69 ) The set of 68 woodcuts, designed between 1482-84, in William Martin Conway, The Woodcutters of the Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century (Cambridge 1884), pp.222-24, No.2; all reproduced in Luc Indestege, Tboeck vanden Leven ons Heeren Iesu Christi. (Geeraert Leeu, Antwerpen 1487). Facsimile-Druk van de Houtsneden (Antwerp 1952) [=Uitgave van de Vereeniging der Antwerpsche Bibliophielen, 2/3], figs.'G'. The 'Second Gouda Woodcutter' described in Conway pp.43-51 & 222-27. - 32 cuts of the set printed for the first time in 1482 by Gerard Leeu, Gouda (Campbell 1156=Polain 2988); the complete set (68 cuts) in ca. 1484 (Campbell 1115, cf. Polain 4383); 36 cuts used 1482/83 for a Life of Christ rhymed in Middle Dutch verse (Campbell 746), cf. M. Zucker, Erlangen, Universitätsbibliothek (Strassburg 1913) [=Paul Heitz, Einblattdrucke des 15. Jahrhunderts, 100 vols. Strassburg 1899-1942, vol.34], figs. 1-36.

70 ) 49 woodcuts; cf. Conway op. cit. (n.69) p.243, No.9. - First printed by J. Bellaert, Haarlem 1486 (Campbell 695 = Polain 1408).

71 ) Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), pp.383-4; Geisberg op. cit. (n.57), pl.69(=L.50); Marrow art. cit. (n.43), fig.17(=L.53); Philip E. Webber,'Denuo Ad Fontes: Un(der)studied Analogues of previously reported visual and textual Material in Vita Christi Devotional Cycles', in: Miscellanea Neerlandica. Opstellen voor Dr Jan Deschamps[...] (Leuven 1987),465-477, figs.3(L.9) & 4(L.51).

72 ) The colored engravings are pasted on the detached paper folios and the borders decorated in penwork. On the backside 25-30 lines in brown ink with Flemish prayers. 39 fols. in London with the Life of Christ (L.8-53), 6 more fols. with other engravings of the 'mass production'. Cf. William Hughes Willshire, A descriptive Catalogue of the early prints in the British Museum, 2 vols. (London 1879-83),vol.2, p.39, No.G.3. - 1 fol. (L.31) in Paris, Louvre, Rothschild Coll.

73 ) Lehrs Nos. 9-15.

74 ) Heribert Hutter, 'Ergänzungen zur Passionsfolge des Meisters der Marter der Zehntausend. Handwerk oder Fliessband im Mittelalter ?', in: Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für vergleichende Kunstforschung in Wien 31/2(1979),pp. 1-5, fig.1.

75 ) M. of the Berlin Passion (L.1). Cf. Hollstein Dutch op. cit. (n.8), vol.12, fig. p.79; Marrow art. cit. (n.43),p. 613,n.74; Jan Deschamps, 'Middelnederlandse Bijbelhandschriften uit het klooster Sint-Catharinadaal te Hasselt', in: Liber amicorum, aangeboden aan Magister Jan Gruyters (Hasselt 1957), pp.197-211.

76 ) Louis Lebeer,'Une Suite de gravures du <Maître du Martyre des Dix Mille>', in: Mélanges Hulin de Loo (Brussels/Paris 1931), pp.231-236.

77 ) 2 plates not in Lehrs, viz. Presentation in the Temple, Webber art. cit. (n.71), fig.1; Christ Purifying the Temple, Lebeer art. cit. (n.76), fig.2.

78 ) Webber art. cit. (n.71), figs. 1-2.

79 ) Menhardt op. cit. (n.32), p.1547.

80 ) Philip E. Webber, 'A Medieval Netherlandic Prayer Cycle on the Life of Christ: Princeton University Library, Garret Ms. 63', in: Ons Geestelijk Erf Antwerp 52(1978), pp.311-362; idem, 'Integration of literary and visual Imagery in Netherlandic <Vita Christi> Prayer Cycles', in: Manuscripta 26(1982), pp.90-9.

81 ) Hutter art. cit. (n.74), p.2.

82 ) Walter Baier, Untersuchungen zu den Passionsbetrachtungen in der 'Vita Christi' des Ludolf von Sachsen (Salzburg 1977) [=Analecta Cartusiana, 44], pp.309-311; Meertens op. cit. (n.25), vol.1, pp.160-2.

83 ) Lotte Kurras, Die deutschen mittelalterlichen Handschriften. 1.Teil. Die literarischen und religiösen Handschriften (Nuremberg 1974) [=Kataloge des Germ. Nationalmuseums Nürnberg. Die Handschriften, 1/1], pp. 22-6.

84 ) Mayor op. cit. (n.1), figs.280 (=L.50) & 287(=L.58).

85 ) M. of St. Erasmus Lehrs Nos. 7 (f.3), 55 (f.162v), 58 (f.169v), 60 (f.170v); M. of the Dutuit Mt. of Olives L.38 (f.159v). - 10 dotted prints of Series <m>, Lehrs op. cit. (n.3), p.33; Georg Leidinger, Vierzig Metallschnitte des XV. Jahrhunderts aus Münchener Privatbesitz (Strassburg 1908) [=Studien zur dt. Kunstgeschichte, 95], p.13; idem, Die Einzel-Metallschnitte (Schrotblätter) des XV. Jahrhunderts in der Kgl. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek München (Strassburg 1908) [=Paul Heitz, Einblattdrucke des 15. Jahrhunderts, 100 vols. Strassburg 1899-1942, vol.15].

86 ) 7th folio from the last. Kindly documented by Prof. Bernhard Bischoff, Munich.

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